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Karl Raymond Birgisson
Master Thesis, Avdelningen för Konstruktionsteknik, Lunds Tekniska Högskola, Lund Universitet, 2009
construction, concrete frameworks, discrete-event simulation, efficiency, project planning, resource utilization

Download pdf version of the articleThe construction industry both in Sweden and abroad suffers from low productivity and quality related issues. This work investigates how discrete-event simulation could be used in planning of construction related production systems. The purpose of this work was to:

bullet Develop a model which simulates on-site construction activities in terms of time, cost and resource usage.
bullet Demonstrate the use of the model by simulating various scenarios, e.g. random phenomena caused by variable weather conditions, scenarios involving assessment of the effect of workers´ experience or by introducing an alternative construction method.

The goal is that the model should:

bullet Enable the user to analyze how different construction scenarios will affect the construction project and use that information to increase the efficiency in work procedures in the project.
bullet Be easy to use for people involved in planning construction projects.
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Slobodan Gutesa
Master Thesis, Agricultural Engineering, lowa State University, 2013
agriculture, biomass, supply chain, transportation

Download pdf version of the articleStable, functional, and efficient bioethanol production systems on the national level must emphasize solutions of feedstock availability and transportation problems. Biomass Supply Chain ModelingTransportation logistics are a critical factor in the optimization of biomass supply chains. A single 25 million gallon per year cellulosic ethanol biorefinery will require delivery of 18,500 semi loads of bales to the plant. For a typical corn-stover biomass supply chain, baled corn stover must be transported in two phases, first from the field to a storage site and then from the storage site to the biorefinery. All activities between these two points are interconnected and together they form the biomass supply chain. The goal of supply-chain optimization is to minimize the total cost of these activities (transportation cost per unit, inventory cost per unit etc.) while satisfying the supply demands of a biorefinery.

Here the author uses a discrete modeling technique to make proper assessment of the supply-chain system performance. The supply-chain model was a representation of a realistic biomass transportation cycle between a single cornfield and biomass storage, including multiple simulations using different model factors.

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Aeronautics

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Front Cover Art
August 2000
aeronautics, airport, security system

Simulation Magazine - August 2000Each month, Simulation magazine features a different simulation application on its cover. Read articleIn August 2000, a model of an airport security checkpoint was selected.This model utilized Extend bundled with Proof Animation (Extend Suite) to simulate and animate proposed changes to an existing security system.

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Agent-Based Modeling

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G. Allen Pugh
Indiana University Purdue University Fort Wayne
agent-based modeling

Download article This paper explores two approaches to modeling manufacturing queueing systems: traditional discrete-event modeling and the agent-based approaches.

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Donald Dudenhoeffer and Michael Jones, Center for Human-System Simulation, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory
Presented at the Winter Simulation Conference 2000
agent-based modeling

Download articleThis paper describes a flexible architecture for modeling thousands of autonomous agents simultaneously. The agents' behavior is based on a subsumption architecture in which individual behaviors are prioritized with respect to all others. The primary behavior explored in this work is a group formation behavior based on social potential fields. It extends the social potential field model by introducing a neutral zone within which other behaviors may exhibit themselves.

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William E. Weiss, The MITRE Corporation
Presented at the Winter Simulation Conference 2008
airport security and operations, agent-based modeling, homeland security

Mitre ModelThe Department of Homeland Security (DHS) shifted the focus of airport security in 2004 to incorporate the need to continuously and rapidly adapt security to shifting threats. MITRE is developing a Dynamic Security Airport Simulation as part of a MITRE-sponsored research project in which attacker and defense behavior in the airport environment are modeled. The simulation accepts threat vectors (path-weapon combinations) from other software or the user and models the performance of the airport defense against those threat vectors. The simulation includes two intelligent agents: the attacker and the defense. These agents model the behavior of those two entities; their logic includes both decision making and learning.The simulation includes two intelligent agents: the attacker and the defense. These agents model the behavior of those two entities; their logic includes both decision making and learning.

Learn more about Mitre's project here. Download article

 

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Agricultural Modeling

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David N. Cole, Rocky Mountain Research Station, United States Department of Agriculture
agricultural, national parks, recreation management

RecreationReport compiling information about progress in the application of simulation to planning and management of recreation use, particularly in parks and wilderness. Download pdf version of the articleThe bulk of this report consists of case studies that illustrate a broad array of recreational situations and management applications for simulation modeling.

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Shahab Sokhansanja, Amit Kumarc, and Anthony F. Turhollowa
Science Direct

October 2006
agricultural, biomass, biorefinery, capacity planning, logistics, supply chain

Download pdf version of the articleThis paper describes the framework development of a dynamic integrated biomass supply analysis and logistics model (IBSAL) to simulate the collection, storage, and transport operations for supplying agricultural biomass to a biorefinery. The model built in Extend consists of time dependent events representing the working rate of equipment and queues representing the capacity of storage structures. Weather conditions including rain and snow influence the moisture content and the dry matter loss of biomass through the supply chain are included in the model.

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Architectural Modeling

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Susan O'Hara, RN, MPH (O'Hara HealthCare Consultants), Dave Krahl (Imagine That Inc) and Mark Sullivan, AIA, NCARB (Mark Sullivan Architects)
Winter Simulation Conference 2004
architecture, healthcare, staffing allocation

.This case study demonstrates the value of simulation modeling in the healthcare architecture design of a new ambulatory surgery unit. The simulation developed explores the relationship between the number of operating rooms and recovery beds, the number of cases and the phases of recovery, bed capacity, staffing, and waiting room seat requirements as each affected the design. Model results allowed time for variations in the design to meet the client's needs before the project was built. Furthermore, the simulation shows the positive outcome of combining the experience of three professional disciplines: healthcare planning, architecture, and simulation modeling for nurses, doctors and patients of the new ambulatory surgery unit.

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Bayesian Networks

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Innovative Decisions, Inc.
bayesian networks, decision support, military

Download pdf version of the articleInnovative Decisions, Inc.In a 3-year project funded by FCS Research through United States Military Academy, Innovative Decisions, Inc. created a Dynamic Decision Network (DDN) utilizing ExtendSim in conjunction with other software tools. The DDN created is a combination of an influence diagram and a Bayesian network that addresses specific problems.

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Biofuel

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Ilmars Dukulis, Gints Birzietis, Daina Kanaska
Latvia University of Agriculture

7th International Scientific Conference on Engineering for Rural Development
biofuel, logistics, supply chain, systems engineering

Download pdf version of the articleLatvia UniversityBiofuels are transport fuels made from organic material. The most common biofuels today are biodiesel (made from vegetable oils) and bioethanol (made from sugar and starch crops). Research is under way to commercialize “second-generation” production techniques that can make biofuels from woody material, grasses, and some additional types of waste. Biofuels have a unique role to play in European energy policy. They are today the only direct substitute for oil in transport that is available on a significant scale.

This paper that was originally presented at the 7th International Scientific Conference on Engineering for Rural Development in May of 2008 in Jelgava, Latvia. It provides a short overview of the strategies and action plans in production and use of biofuels in Europe and Latvia. Then, existing solutions in the
improvement of biofuel logistic systems are analyzed as well as ExtendSim as a tool for the modeling of biofuel supply chains.

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Biotechnology

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Marc Puich & Amit Paz
BioPharm International

May 1, 2004
biotechnology, dynamic modeling, productions capacity, static modeling

BioPharmAs biotechnology organizations have successfully launched new products, the challenges of producing adequate quantities have grown. Read articleSimulation is a powerful tool that can offer many benefits if done right and used appropriately. This general overview compares static and dynamic modeling and their usefulness in the biotechnology field.

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Business Modeling

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Alan M. Christie
Software Engineering Institute
business, call centers, security, software engineering

Read articleThis paper aims to raise awareness about the usefulness and importance of simulation in support of software engineering. Features an Extend model that depicts a call-center type of process for a computer security incident response team.

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Capacity Planning

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Food Online
March 24, 1999
capacity planning, food manufacturing, making and packing, plant capacity

Download pdf version of the articleCase study in which a simulation project manager wanted to determine current plant capacity and be able to test the effects of various changes. This article discusses models that examined the balance between the "making" and "packing" systems during an annual production cycle.

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Jim Curry
OpStat Group, Inc.
Presented at APICS May 2006
capacity planning, lean manufacturing

Read articleSimulation: Operations Excellence Tool in Lean Manufacturing is a good overview paper on the use of ExtendSim in lean manufacturing. Defines simulation and highlights a few areas where it can be most valuable.

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Chemical Processing

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Scott J Bury, Naoko Akiya, and Jeff Ferrio (Dow Chemical Company)
Presented at the Winter Simulation Conference 2004
chemical processing, resources, scheduling

Read articleThis case study presents multi-product batch optimal scheduling using Resource-Task Networks (RTN). This combined approach of discrete event simulation and deterministic optimization has provided rapid improvements in the scheduling technology.

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Bikram Sharda & Scott J. Bury (Dow Chemical Company)
Presented at the Winter Simulation Conference 2008
chemical processing, equipment allocation, production optimization, reliability

Read articleChemical PlantThis paper discusses a discrete event simulation model developed to identify and understand the impact of different failures on the overall production capabilities in a chemical plant. The model is designed to be used to understand key equipment components that contribute towards maximum production loss and to analyze the impact of a change policy on production losses. A change policy can be classified in terms of new equipment installation or increasing the stock level for the failure prone components. This paper presents the approach used and some preliminary results obtained from available data.

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Communication Systems

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Jim Walsh, Jeff Roberts, and Wayne Thompson from SPARTA, Inc.
2005 International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium
The Future of Command and Control
March 15, 2005
communications, government, military, resource management

Download NETE Model paperSparta paperIn NCW End-To-End (NETE) Model For Future C2 Architecture Assessments, NETE -- a Net-Centric Warfare (NCW) End-to-End model is discussed. NETE is a medium fidelity constructive simulation of the Global Information Grid (GIG) infrastructure, Service networks, and their integrated operations in support of definable mission areas. The NETE model provides a means to assess the ability of a defined network to support a concept of operations with resource management to allow the assessment of latencies under varying loads. SPARTA has established this model across their corporate communications infrastructure; populating databases with hundreds of gigabytes of data, simulating user loads using distributed simulations to drive loading, and emulating sensor feeds while viewing geometries and sensor propagation.NETE also calculates the impact of network ‘jitter’ on mission timelines.

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US Tech Interactive
March 1999
communications, cost analysis, inventory control, manufacturing

Read articleSimulation Streamlines Production, Shaves Cost describes a digital wireless communications products and technologies manufacturer that streamlines its equipment manufacturing processes and improves inventory control, generating significant cost savings, with simulation.

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Design of Experiments

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Wayne Wakeland, Systems Science Ph.D. Program & David Raffo, School of Business Administration, Portland State University; and Robert H. Martin, Software Management Consulting
ProSim Conference 2003
design of experiments, sensitivity analysis, hybrid simulation

Read articlePaper This paper applies DOE and broad range sensitivity analysis to a Hybrid System Dynamics and discrete event simulation model of a software development process. DOE is used to analyze the interaction effects, such as the degree to which the impact of the process change depends on worker motivation, schedule pressure and other project environmental variables. The sensitivity of the model to parameter changes over a broad range of plausible values is used to analyze the nonlinear aspects of the model. The end result is a deeper insight into the conditions under which the process change will succeed and improved recommendations for process change design and implementation.

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Engineering

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Cheryl Balian
The MITRE Digest
May 2006
engineering, service industry

Read articleThe MITRE DigestA group of engineers at MITRE collaborated and are emphasizing how the performance engineering (PE) practice assures systems meet their operational performance goals. To that end, MITRE engineers have developed a number of PE tools, such as the Modeling Environment for SOA Analysis (MESA). MESA (developed in Extend) provides end-to-end modeling and simulation environments for studying service-oriented architectures (SOA).

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Environmental Modeling

. Computer Simulation Modeling for Recreation Management: A Study on Carriage Road Use in Acadia National Park, Maine, USA
Benjamin Wang, Robert E. Manning
Environmental Management
January 1999
capacity planning, environmental, national parks,predictability, recreation management

Read articleComputer Simulation Modeling for Recreation Management: A Study on Carriage Road Use in Acadia National Park, Maine, USA details the use of computer simulation as a tool for describing visitor travel on the carriage roads of Acadia National Park, Maine, USA. The findings of this study suggest that computer simulation is useful for estimating current carrying capacity conditions, predicting future conditions, and guiding related research.

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The Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program
August 2000
environmental, government, military

Green EnergeticsAn energetic materials environmental study was completed with participation from NASA, the Environmental Protection Agency, and others to define the environmental impact of energetic materials. The Extend model developed for this project helped to identify eleven areas for which The Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) might consider promoting future research and development work, plus the model calculated the propellant cost for each manufacturing activity.

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Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation Watershed 2004
environmental,feasibiilty studies, government, land usage, stormwater treatment

Download pdf version of the articleCH2M HillDeveloped in Extend, the LIFE (Low Impact Feasibility Evaluation) model establishes functional connections between different land uses and landscape features. It can be used for:

bullet Design of volume or water quality based stormwater controls.
bullet Review of development/re-development plans for compliance with stormwater regulations.
bullet Incentive-based approaches such as environmental credit trading.
bullet Public education and outreach.
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Edwin P. Maurer, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Santa Clara University, Santa Clara, CA & Dennis P. Lettenmaier, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA
Journal of Climate 2004 - Issue 17, Volume 2
environmental, flow analysis, hydropower, reservoir analysis

Download pdfAmerican Meteorological SocietyUsing Extend, the authors constructed a system model, MOSIM, that uses the physical reservoir data and minimum releases for hydropower and environmental constraints from a long-term study of the Missouri River basin. The value was based on the hydropower generated by the main-stem dams for a simulated period of 1898–1996 using MOSIM. Simulated forecasted flows were generated to represent the levels of predictability that had been determined in a previous study. The results demonstrate that use of climate forecast information along with better definition of the basin moisture states can improve runoff predictions with modest economic value that, in general, will increase as the size of the reservoir system decreases.

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Davies Consulting Inc.
June 2007
environmental, storm restoration, utilities

Download articleDavies ConsultingIn collaboration with a major utility facing major storms on an annual basis, Davies Consulting Inc. developed an innovative simulation model that allows decision makers to evaluate the affect of strategic decisions on storm restoration prior to and after a storm has struck.

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Facility Design

. Facility Design: Simulation Methodology for Facility Design
How simulation software can be used effectively as a capacity planning and design tool.

Jim Curry, OpStat Group, Inc.
BioPharm International
Jun 1, 2007
biotechnology, capacity planning, facility design

Facility DesignGo to Facility Design articleDesigning a new biological facility or planning the expansion of an existing one requires evaluation of several parameters related to product characteristics, equipment capability, and facility capacity. Decisions made at the design stages are critical to the validation plan and the ongoing operation if it is a commercial facility. Whether the facility will provide the needed future capacity is one of the critical questions requiring a credible answer. This article describes a methodology that uses Extend simulation software as a capacity planning and design tool.

. Simulating a Production Facility with an Automated Transport System

Westinghouse Savannah River Company
April 13, 2004
capacity and throughput analysis, facility design, transortation

Savannah River Company modelThe Westinghouse Savannah River Company successfully created an Extend model that assessed Dowload articlematerial throughput and validated the equipment list for the conceptual design of a manufacturing facility. Generic powerful autonomous blocks were developed that can automatically read and write to multiple tables; automatically adjust the manufacturing process based upon the characteristics of the item received; and can be rapidly reconfigured to investigate alternate process characteristics, changes in the number, type, and or location of the workstations; and the characteristics of the transport system. Preliminary calculations were completed that favorably compare with the original throughput model.

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Food Manufacturing

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É. Hajnal and G. Kollár, Corvinus University of Budapest; G. Almásy, University of Veszprém; K. Kollár-Hunek, Budapest University of Technology and Economics
May 15, 2007
food manufacturing, logistics, process engineering, pollution control

Download pdf version of the articleAny activity that receives inputs and convert them to outputs can be considered a process. Food LogisticsSo, essentially, similar equations are used in the theory of chemical, biochemical, nuclear, mechanical, and other types of process engineering modeling. This particular research group set out identify the processes, network of processes, process variables and process equations in food logistics. This paper introduces how process building, simulation run, and optimization can be carried out in a Food Distribution Centre with a message-based discrete event simulation software (ExtendSim). Simulation usage as a decision supporting tool in the hand of company management is introduced as well as the affect of wrong decisions on the extent of air pollution coming out from cooling vehicle.

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Patrizia Busato and Remigio Berruto, DEIAFA – University of Turin
3rd International European Forum on System Dynamics and Innovation in Food Networks

February 16-20, 2009
dynamic simulation, food manufacturing, logistics, supply chain, traceability

Download pdf version of the articleThe supply chain for fresh produce consists of many links: producer/grower, warehouse, packing center, distribution center, retailers, and finally the consumer. Each of these is a system in itself, interacting with the other components of the supply chain.

Due to requirements of produce storage, the processing plant, and saving in the
traceability process, often small size lots are merged together to form a large size lot at some point in the supply chain. This larger lot size could imply higher risk for the consumers in case of recall of the produce and much higher recall time and cost for the supply chain.

When a non-conformity occurs, the time to recall the produce depends on many factors: lot size, lead time for information spreading from link to link, product transit time among links, product storage procedures and times, and the point in the supply chain where the problem occurred. Using ExtendSim, the authors built a model to study different scenarios for a recall procedure.

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Kevin T. Higgins
Food Engineering Magazine
July 2001
food & beverage manufacturing, packaging lines, workflow

Read articlePackages that accurately emulate the hybrid processes that characterize food and beverage manufacturing are making simulation more than just a snazzy presentation tool for upper management. Users are roughing out their production and packaging lines on screen to gain insight into the dynamics of their lines and where and why bottlenecks occur.

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Government

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IIE Solutions
December 1996
energy resources, government, oil production, supply chain

Download pdf version of the articleProject undertaken by the Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) to reengineer its supply chain to reduce expenses, decrease need-fulfillment time, and improve the storage and dissemination of information.

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Elliot Sloane, Thomas Way, Vijay Gehlot, Anany Levitin, and Robert Beck
Villanova University

Presented at the IEEE System of Systems Conference, San Antonio, Texas, April 16-18, 2007
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Healthcare / Medical Modeling

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Focused_On Limited
2009

Download pdf version of the articleFocused_OnThe Leeds & Wakefield Breast Screening Service & Primary Care Trusts asked Focused_On Limited to build a Demand & Capacity simulation model focused on the number of Mobile and Static Screening facilities and the Screening Staff needed to cope with background population increases and the Age Extension Strategy.

Results of their ExtendSim model and report, "...saved buying at least 2 new Screening machines and Leeds & Wakefield now has a blue-print for success."

. Discrete Event Modeling of CD4+ Memory T Cell Generation
Martin S. Zand, Benjamin J. Briggs, Anirban Bose, and Thuong Vo
The Journal of Immunology

2004

Read articleStudies of memory T cell differentiation tend to be hampered by a lack of quantitative models to test hypotheses in silico before in vivo experimentation. Using Extend, researchers from the Nephrology Unit and Department of Surgery at the University of Rochester Medical Center in Rochester, New York built a model of CD4+ memory T cell generation capable of tracking individual lymphocytes.

. Discrete Event Simulation of Emergency Department Activity: A Platform for System-level Operations Research
Lloyd G. Connelly, PhD and Aaron E. Bair, MD
Journal of Academic Emergency Medicine
November 2004

Read articleExplores the potential of discrete event simulation (DES) methods to advance system-level investigation of emergency department (ED) operations. To this end, the authors describe the development and operation of Emergency Department SIMulation (EDSIM), a new platform for computer simulation of ED activity at a Level 1 trauma center. The authors also demonstrate one potential application of EDSIM by using simulated ED activity to compare two patient triage methods.

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Children's Hospital Informatics Program

Read articleThis paper describes the construction of a computer model that simulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis) regulation of cortisol production.

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Focused_On Limited
2007

Download pdf version of the articleFocused_OnWorking with the South Tyneside Primary Care Trust, Focused_On Health Limited used Extend to help redesign processes to improve patient access to psychological therapies, deliver greater care, and provide a better value for the money.

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RAND Corporation
released for unlimited distribution 2010
healthcare, military, resource allocation

Download pdf version of the articleThe U.S. Army uses Combat Support Hospitals (CSHs)—mobile, deployable hospitals housed in tents and expandable containers—to provide surgical and trauma care close to combat action.A CSH is a 248-bed hospital staffed by approximately 500 personnel. RAND CorporationModular in design, it can also operate as two geographically separated hospitals ("split-based operations"), one with 164 beds and the other with 84 beds. CSHs provide the highest level of in-theater medical care available to American military personnel serving in active, deployed operations, including stabilization and surgical capabilities comparable to those in the trauma centers of major hospitals in the United States. Currently the Army has 29 CSHs, soon to be reduced to 26: 10 in the active component (8 in the continental United States and 2 forward stationed in South Korea and Germany) and 16 in the U.S. Army Reserve.

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Drs. Suresh Chand and Herb Moskowitz
Krannert Magazine

Fall 2006

.Krannert professors Suresh Chand (left) and Herb Moskowitz (right) are leading a project team that uses management principles to increase the efficiency of healthcare delivery. What began as an MBA class project at Purdue University’s Krannert School of Management is now applying factory management techniques to a medical clinic, ultimately improving productivity and quality. The student-faculty team’s approach to improving healthcare clinic operations is, of necessity, “multipronged.” Ultimately, the research applies the principles of engineering, management, science, and information technology to improve the delivery of healthcare to consumers.

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Martin J. Miller, David M. Ferrin (Business Prototyping Inc.), and Jill M. Szymanski (Baptist Health South Florida)
Winter Simulation Conference 2003

Download pdf version of the articleA large hospital in southeast United States utilized simulation to aid project leaders in advancing to the next level of sophistication with Six Sigma. The project produced an ongoing, workable model from which potential process improvements in their Emergency Department (ED) were simulated. Project leaders tested several scenarios in the ED Simulation to quantify their value proposition. The simulation model also enabled the hospital to test design ideas of a planned new facility.

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Elliot Sloane, Thomas Way, Vijay Gehlot, Anany Levitin, and Robert Beck
Villanova University

Presented at the IEEE System of Systems Conference, San Antonio, Texas, April 16-18, 2007
. The Use of Simulation Modeling in Healthcare Planning
Ambulatory Surgery Unit
Winter Simulation Conference 2004
Susan O'Hara, RN, MPH (O'Hara HealthCare Consultants), Dave Krahl (Imagine That Inc) and Mark Sullivan, AIA, NCARB (Mark Sullivan Architects)

Read articleThis case study demonstrates the value of simulation modeling in the healthcare architecture design of a new ambulatory surgery unit. The simulation developed explores the relationship between the number of operating rooms and recovery beds, the number of cases and the phases of recovery, bed capacity, staffing, and waiting room seat requirements as each affected the design. Model results allowed time for variations in the design to meet the client's needs before the project was built. Furthermore, the simulation shows the positive outcome of combining the experience of three professional disciplines: healthcare planning, architecture, and simulation modeling for nurses, doctors and patients of the new ambulatory surgery unit.

. Using Simulation to Improve the Patient Pre-admission Testing Design Process
Susan O'Hara, RN MPH (O'Hara HealthCare Consultants), Mark Sullivan, AIA, NCARB (Mark Sullivan Architects) and Henry Bell (Smoky Mountain Simulation Services)
Winter Simulation Conference 2004

Read articleSimulation modeling is a tool of hospital-wide system process change with a focus on improving patient satisfaction through a better clinical process. Some of the improvements, based on existing systems, include decreased delays, better healthcare staff utilization and tailored scheduling. In this part 2 of 2 perioperative case studies (part 1: Ambulatory Surgery Unit), the experiences of three distinct, yet complimentary professions are combined and opitimized: nursing/healthcare planning, architecture, and simulation engineering to create a better way to provide a clinical service in a newly designed healthcare space. Complete paper to be posted soon.

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High Speed Flow Lines

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Ricardo Rodríguez & Rosana Marino,
S&T - Servicio y Tecnología S.A.

Read articlePilot experience in the adoption of performance simulation approach to design, redesign, and acquisition of bottling lines. Discusses the management of huge bottling resources of a company: more than 36 lines in 12 factories, in 6 countries, with an aggregated investment value of $ 200 million, occupying more than a thousand people and producing 250 million cases a year of 300 different SKUs.

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Inventory Management

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Dr. Donald W. Collins
Solid State Technology

January 1999

Read articleSimulation of a wafer fabrication line to assist in the meeting of delivery schedules, reducing product cycle times, increasing product yield and throughput, optimizing equipment utilization, and increasing confidence for on-time delivery and profits.

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M. Elisa Cunha, Dep. Ciências e Tecnologias, Univ. Autónoma de Lisboa; A. Paula Barbosa Póvoa, Centro de Estudos de Gestão; & A. Assis Lopes, Dep. Economia e Gestão, Univ. Lusíada de Lisboa, Portugal
POMS 16th Annual Conference
May 2005

Download pdf version of the articleInventory management of multi-echelon repairable item structures have been largely studied. Restrictions on its applications to real case problems were difficult to overcome. To surpass some of these limitations, the authors used ExtendSim to create a simulation model that not only examines a multi-echelon structure system, but also permits the explicit consideration of a hierarchical structure for repairable and consumable items. Model results balance inventory policy which guarantees a certain level of service accounting for operations occurrence and repairs conditions.

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Eugene Kopytov and Aivars Muravjovs
Transport and Telecommunication Institute, Riga, Latvia
presented at the 2011 European Conference on Modelling and Simulation, Kraków, Poland
inventory control, supply chain

Inventory ControlAn ExtendSim model of a two-level inventory control system for a homogenous product is examined in this report. The model includes stocks showing both the wholesaler's and customers' warehouses, each characterized by a random demand for product and random time of product delivery.

The completed model could be used for examining dynamics of the stocks' level at the warehouses of the customers and the wholesaler. It could also be used to search for an optimal decision for a company having its own wholesale warehouse and a network of its own enterprises-customers. The future plan is investigation of different variants of wholesaler's ordering policy.

Learn more about the inventory control system here. Download pdf



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Jacek Zabawa and Bolena Mielczarek, Institute of Industrial Engineering and Management at Wroclaw University of Technology
presented at the 21st EUROPEAN Conference oon Modelling and Simulation ECMS 2007
cost analysis, inventory management, Monte Carlo method, optimization, supply chain design

Download pdf version of the articleThis paper compares the use of a spreadsheet vs. ExtendSim to create Monte Carlo simulations to manage inventory and design a supply chain. Models created were optimized to find the minimal inventory cost.


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Lean Manufacturing / Six Sigma

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Gray McQuarrie
The PCB Magazine - April 2013
lean manufacturing

Download pdf version of the articleExamine Your DAM WIPDo you think you have the best Lean program in the world? If you aren’t taking vital information and comparing it to the correct benchmarks, you might be killing your business. Yes, you can be too Lean!

In the April 2013 issue of The PCB Magazine, Gray Mc Quarrie challenges you to think differently by understanding and examining your WIP.

You need to check your WIP levels and compare to the practical worst-case benchmarks: This is called internal benchmarking. Learn more.

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Jim Curry, OpStat Group, Inc.
APICS eNews
June 6, 2006

Download articleAPICS eNewsBrief introductory article discussing the key element in lean implementation: simulation.

. Improving Distribution Center Operations Through Simulation At Crutchfield Corporation
Paul G. Sherland, Rust Management Technology, LLC and David Luria, Crutchfield Corporation
Presented at the Winter Simulation Conference 2004

Working as a team, Crutchfield Corporation, a major consumer electronics catalog and Internet retailer, and Rust Management Technology used Extend and ExpertFit to develop and validate a distribution center process simulation using Six Sigma techniques. Using insights developed through the simulation, Crutchfield Corporation estimates that it will save 15 to 20 times the cost of the project in the first year after deployment. Paper is currently not available online.

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Jim Curry, OpStat Group, Inc.
SME Technical Paper

March 2007

Download pdf version of the articleThis paper presents a case study where simulation was used to convert from a manufacturing resource planning (MRP) based push process to a demand-driven pull process in a single plant operation factory floor.

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Jim Curry, OpStat Group, Inc.
Presented at the Automated Lean & Quality Resource Center at EASTEC, May 25, 2006

Download pdf version of the articleLean Simulation Models introduces the use of simulation models as essential tools for lean programs to test alternative solutions before implementing them. Mr. Curry highlights benefits of using Extend and includes screenshots of numerous sample models.

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Martin J. Miller, David M. Ferrin (Business Prototyping Inc.), and Jill M. Szymanski (Baptist Health South Florida)
Winter Simulation Conference 2003

Download pdf version of the articleA large hospital in southeast United States utilized simulation to aid project leaders in advancing to the next level of sophistication with Six Sigma. The project produced an ongoing, workable model from which potential process improvements in their Emergency Department (ED) were simulated. Project leaders tested several scenarios in the ED Simulation to quantify their value proposition. The simulation model also enabled the hospital to test design ideas of a planned new facility.

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Jim Curry
OpStat Group, Inc.
Presented at APICS May 2006

Read articleSimulation Modeling in Lean Programs is a good overview paper on the use of Extend in lean manufacturing. Defines simulation and highlights a few areas where it can be most valuable.

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Johnson & JohnsonBruce Sawyer, Johnny Muñoz, and Jim Curry
Pharmaceutical Engineering

May/June 2010

Read articleAs part of its process excellence program, in 2005, Johnson & Johnson commissioned the building of a simulation model to examine current operations and develop solutions for the future for one of its large pharmaceutical plants. This paper describes how simulation evolved from improvement and capacity projects to the ongoing planning and management process.

The tool developed by ExtendSim Consultant The OpStat Group, was not intended to be a one-time project, but rather a short/mid/long term capacity planning and continuous improvement tool. Johnson & JohnsonSince the model's inception, as in most facilites, options were continually being considered for the suppply chain network.The work stream mirrored by the ExtendSim model is one, if not the largest for this technology in the J&J network and is usually key to any network decisions. It has become central to plant management decision-making.

Ultimately, significant benefits in delivering positive change at Johnson & Johnson ensued, including:

bullet Better utilization of personnel by not squandering their time on projects that would not deliver expected results. Without adding staff, J&J was working smarter by using the tool to pre-test process change.
bullet Accelerated delivery of value-added projects that improved cycle time, throughput, and inventory by assisting in the selection of lean techiques and parameters to achieve optimum solutions across combined upstream and downstream operations.
bullet Improved accuracy and timeliness of planning information for plant and supply chain management to evaluate options for sourcing and capacity within the plant and across the supply chain.
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Logistics

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Wine Business Monthly
October 2000

Read articleCognitive Process Simulation in Wine Making: Determining the Best Route for Wine Transfers describes the use of simulation to create a cognitive model of the actions of certain winery workers.

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Prepared for the United States Air Force by Mahyar A. Amouzegar & Lionel A. Galway
RAND Corporation
released for unlimited distribution 2003
logistics, military, resource allocation

This report is a user's guide for the Engine Maintenance Systems Evaluation (EnMasse). EnMasse is a simulation model built in ExtendSim and used in the analysis of alternative Jet Engine Intermediate Maintenance (JEIM) policies.

The result of the policy analysis conducted using EnMasse is reported in a companion document, Supporting Expeditionary Aerospace Forces: Alternatives for Jet Engine Intermediate Maintenance, MR-1431-AF, 2002, ISBN 978-0833031037. The goal of this analysis was to evaluate several alternatives for
accomplishing JEIM support. Closely allied to maintenance policy are the maintenance structures within which these policiesoperate both in peace and war.

Click here to view the EnMasse report. Download pdf version of the article


. Modeling and Simulation Impacts Complex Design and Programmatic Decisions
Chem-Bio Defense Quarterly
April-June 2006

Chem-Bio Defense QuarterlyModeling and Simulation Impacts Programmatic DecisionsThe Guardian Installation Protection Program (IPP), a program within the Joint Program Executive Office for Chemical and Biological Defense to protect 200 military installations world-wide from chemical, biological, and radiological threats, developed and accredited the IPP System Effectiveness Model. This model helps evaluate installation designs and make programmatic decisions. It assists a product manager to make a myriad of acquisition and design decisions and measure the performance of a design before it is fielded. By catching key design flaws before they are fielded, analysis can be performed to help define alternative operational procedures and new design requirements early in the acquisition process and avoid fielding delays and unexpected costs. This innovative toolset is the first of its kind that has the ability to effectively model complex military environments, multiple threats, and innovative designs that combine materiel and non-materiel components into one Family of Systems.

.
Susan Hutchins, Gordon Schacher, John Looney, Jack Jensen, John Osmundson, and Shelley Gallup from the Naval Postgraduate School; James Dailey and Steven Saylor from The Boeing Company
10th International Command and Control Research & Technology Symposium
May 2005

Download pdf version of the article

Boeing and the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) developed an Extend model of an organizational concept called Standing Joint Forces HQ (SJFHQ) being developed at the U.S. Joint Forces Command (JFCOM). The modeling objective was to measure personnel utilization and organizational process efficiency. Here is the NPS final report and an abbreviated presentation given at a public command and control conference. The final report contains a lot of information about the actual Extend model developed.

Download pdf version of the article Presentation Download pdf version of the article Final Report
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Manufacturing

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Wine Business Monthly
October 2000

Read articleCognitive Process Simulation in Wine Making: Determining the Best Route for Wine Transfers describes the use of simulation to create a cognitive model of the actions of certain winery workers.

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Jim Curry, OpStat Group, Inc.
APICS eNews
June 6, 2006

Download articleAPICS eNewsBrief introductory article discussing the key element in lean implementation: simulation.

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CIO Magazine
September 15, 2000

Read articleDue to the complexity and diversity with which wines are produced, there's an incredible need to track the numerous variables for this process. Plus, strict state laws regarding the production and sale of alcohol requires vintners to trace everything from the sugar content of the grapes right down to the heritage of the grapes that contribute to each bottle of wine. This article summarizes the wine industry's adoption of IT in a number of creative ways, including its use of simulation.

. Improving Distribution Center Operations Through Simulation At Crutchfield Corporation
Paul G. Sherland, Rust Management Technology, LLC and David Luria, Crutchfield Corporation
Presented at the Winter Simulation Conference 2004

Working as a team, Crutchfield Corporation, a major consumer electronics catalog and Internet retailer, and Rust Management Technology used Extend and ExpertFit to develop and validate a distribution center process simulation using Six Sigma techniques. Using insights developed through the simulation, Crutchfield Corporation estimates that it will save 15 to 20 times the cost of the project in the first year after deployment. Paper is currently not available online.

.
Jim Curry, OpStat Group, Inc.
SME Technical Paper

March 2007

Download pdf version of the articleThis paper presents a case study where simulation was used to convert from a manufacturing resource planning (MRP) based push process to a demand-driven pull process in a single plant operation factory floor.

. Modeling and Simulation of LED Manufacturing Process with ExtendSim
Yinhui Ao and Zhenxin Wu, Faculty of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Guangzdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, China
Applied Mechanics and Materials - Volume 109: Emerging Systems for Materials, Mechanics and Manufacturing
October 2011

Applied Mechanics and MaterialsLED (Light Emitting Diode) has many excellent features as a new lighting device and is now widely used. This paper introduces the structure and light-emitting principle of LED and explains the LED manufacturing process, dynamically showing it with FLASH CS. An LED processing line is modeled and simulated through the dynamic software ExtendSim. The simulation result is analyzed and processing line balanced. Ultimately, throughput is improved with simulation.

Access paper go to...

 

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Dr. Donald W. Collins, Luc D’Arcy Collins, and Bob Franklin
April 2002

Download pdf version of the articleThis paper describes the logic and assumptions used in building a simulation model of an Automated Material Handling System (AMHS) for an eight inch Wafer FAB. The model includes the ability to make changes to the area stocker layout, number of area stockers, number of loops, number of cars, and/or the number of Lot moves. This model is used to determine if the Area Stockers can handle the quantities of Lots per hour required by From-To-Table "customer" requirements.

. Simulation's Strength
Mark Toner
TechNews
May/June 2002

Read articleIn Simulation's Strength, Extend helped a print publisher save hundreds of thousands of dollars by pointing out the optimal amount of equipment needed for a large-scale publishing operation.

. Virtual Engineering's New Frontier
Kevin T. Higgins
Food Engineering Magazine
August 2001

Read articlePackages that accurately emulate the hybrid processes that characterize food and beverage manufacturing are making simulation more than just a snazzy presentation tool for upper management. Virtual Engineering's New Frontier describes users roughing out their production and packaging lines on screen to gain insight into the dynamics of their lines and where and why bottlenecks occur.

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Military

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Innovative Decisions, Inc.
bayesian networks, decision support, military

Download pdf version of the articleInnovative Decisions, Inc.In a 3-year project funded by FCS Research through United States Military Academy, Innovative Decisions, Inc. created a Dynamic Decision Network (DDN) utilizing ExtendSim in conjunction with other software tools. The DDN created is a combination of an influence diagram and a Bayesian network that addresses specific problems.

.
Prepared for the United States Air Force by Mahyar A. Amouzegar & Lionel A. Galway
RAND Corporation
eleased for unlimited distribution 2003
logistics, military, resource allocation

This report is a user's guide for the Engine Maintenance Systems Evaluation (EnMasse). EnMasse is a simulation model built in ExtendSim and used in the analysis of alternative Jet Engine Intermediate Maintenance (JEIM) policies.

The result of the policy analysis conducted using EnMasse is reported in a companion document, Supporting Expeditionary Aerospace Forces: Alternatives for Jet Engine Intermediate Maintenance, MR-1431-AF, 2002, ISBN 978-0833031037. The goal of this analysis was to evaluate several alternatives for
accomplishing JEIM support.Closely allied to maintenance policy are the maintenance structures within which these policiesoperate both in peace and war.Download pdf version of the article

Click here for the EnMasse report.

.
Matt Aylward
February 17, 2009
logistics, military, resource allocation

By assuming existing structure from 1st and 2nd Force Reconnaissance Companies, MARSOC was able to initiate operational deployments of company-sized elements a little more than one year after establishment of the Command.  In addition, deployments by the Foreign Military Training Unit (FMTU), re-designated as the Marine Special Operations Advisory Group (MSOAG) have continued and are increasing in terms of locations, duration and frequency. 

While supporting an expanding range of deployments and establishing the structure to recruit, screen, assess, select and train operators, MARSOC has also confronted the challenge of developing an appropriately sized logistic capability.  In the near term, this capability must support deployments of 14 to 54 operators, ranging from six weeks to six months, while respecting a 1:2 dwell time.  While the Special Operations Forces Support Activity (SOFSA) provides complete support to all SOF-specific equipment, the Marine Corps must support the forces and equipment it provides to SOCCOM.

Go to Final Report Wiki Model-based Green Gun Propellant
Download Final Report Download pdf version of the article
Download ExtendSim model files Download pdf version of the article

In less than two years, MARSOC will reach Fully Mission Capable (FMC) status. At that point, the Command must be able to support deployments of battalion-sized elements, organized to function as Joint Special Operations Task Force Headquarters (JSOTF HQ). 

During the transition period from IOC to FOC, much of the operational effort will be focused on support to CENTCOM in OIF and OEF.  After 2010, the proportion of deployments to austere theaters will increase; significantly increasing the demands on the Command’s organic logistics capability.

.
Naval Defense Center for Environmental Excellence
December 2003

Model-based Green Gun PropellantThe Indian Head Division Naval Surface Warfare Center (IHD/NSWC) contracted the National Defense Center for Environmental Excellence (NDCEE) to develop a process and environmental cost-analysis simulation for gun propellant processing. Using Extend, they built a model specific to the extrusion of both solvent and solventless thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) propellants. This model accurately predicts the cost impacts of alternative processes before implementation can be initiated.

. Modeling and Simulation Impacts Complex Design and Programmatic Decisions
Chem-Bio Defense Quarterly
April-June 2006

Chem-Bio Defense QuarterlyModeling and Simulation Impacts Programmatic DecisionsThe Guardian Installation Protection Program (IPP), a program within the Joint Program Executive Office for Chemical and Biological Defense to protect 200 military installations world-wide from chemical, biological, and radiological threats, developed and accredited the IPP System Effectiveness Model. This model helps evaluate installation designs and make programmatic decisions. It assists a product manager to make a myriad of acquisition and design decisions and measure the performance of a design before it is fielded. By catching key design flaws before they are fielded, analysis can be performed to help define alternative operational procedures and new design requirements early in the acquisition process and avoid fielding delays and unexpected costs. This innovative toolset is the first of its kind that has the ability to effectively model complex military environments, multiple threats, and innovative designs that combine materiel and non-materiel components into one Family of Systems.

.
Susan Hutchins, Gordon Schacher, John Looney, Jack Jensen, John Osmundson, and Shelley Gallup from the Naval Postgraduate School; James Dailey and Steven Saylor from The Boeing Company
10th International Command and Control Research & Technology Symposium
May 2005

Download pdf version of the article

Boeing and the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) developed an Extend model of an organizational concept called Standing Joint Forces HQ (SJFHQ) being developed at the U.S. Joint Forces Command (JFCOM). The modeling objective was to measure personnel utilization and organizational process efficiency. Here is the NPS final report and an abbreviated presentation given at a public command and control conference. The final report contains a lot of information about the actual Extend model developed.

Download pdf version of the article Presentation Download pdf version of the article Final Report
.
RAND Corporation
released for unlimited distribution 2010
, healthcare, military, resource allocation

Download pdf version of the articleThe U.S. Army uses Combat Support Hospitals (CSHs)—mobile, deployable hospitals housed in tents and expandable containers—to provide surgical and trauma care close to combat action.A CSH is a 248-bed hospital staffed by approximately 500 personnel. RAND CorporationModular in design, it can also operate as two geographically separated hospitals ("split-based operations"), one with 164 beds and the other with 84 beds. CSHs provide the highest level of in-theater medical care available to American military personnel serving in active, deployed operations, including stabilization and surgical capabilities comparable to those in the trauma centers of major hospitals in the United States. Currently the Army has 29 CSHs, soon to be reduced to 26: 10 in the active component (8 in the continental United States and 2 forward stationed in South Korea and Germany) and 16 in the U.S. Army Reserve.

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Miscellaneous

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Averill M. Law, PhD

Read articleEleven Critical Pitfalls in Simulation Modeling is a synopsis of some of the ideas presented in Averill Law's three-day simulation short courses.

. Extend 6
Dale Farris, Vice President
Golden Triangle PC Club

January 2005

Read article"Extend is one of the most powerful and sophisticated software programs I have worked with in a long time." reports Dale Farris, VP of the Golden Triangle PC Club. In this thorough review of Extend 6, Mr. Farris highlights some of the features and advantages of using Extend.

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IIE Solutions
G. Allen Pugh

February 2001

Read articleDean of engineering, technology, and computer science at Indiana University-Purdue University offers his point of view on Extend.

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David M. Raffo, PhD and Wayne Wakeland, PhD, Carnegie Mellon University
Software Engineering Institute

January 2008

Read articleThis report shows how process simulation modeling (PSIM) can help companies improve processes and achieve higher levels of process maturity and capability as called for by the Capability Maturity Model® Integration (CMMI®)1 [SEI 2006]. CMMI was developed by a team consisting of members from industry, government, and the Software Engineering Institute (SEI).This report is aimed at practitioners, especially software development project managers, and researchers studying software development processes. The report describes a variety of PSIM applications and discusses how PSIM has helped organizations to improve their implementations of CMMI areas toward higher levels of process capability, maturity and performance.

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Simulation Magazine
December 1999

Read articleOptimization of Simulated System Effectiveness Using Evolutionary Algorithms is a brief discussion of the use of evolutionary algorithms in system optimization.

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Bob Diamond
Imagine That Inc.

Read articleGeneral introductory article on terms used in simulation and the benefits of using simulation.

. Software Review: Extend Simulation Software
Jayant M. Modak
Current Science Online
March 25, 1999

Read articleIn this review of Extend 4 written in 1999, the author highlights numerous Extend features which facilitate model building. The pricing, system requirements for Extend, and package names are outdated, but most of the remainder of his review is still valid (with the exception of features added in later versions of ExtendSim and Extend which merely add to its appeal).

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Monte Carlo Simulation

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Jacek Zabawa and Bolena Mielczarek, Institute of Industrial Engineering and Management at Wroclaw University of Technology
presented at the 21st EUROPEAN Conference oon Modelling and Simulation ECMS 2007
cost analysis, inventory management, Monte Carlo method, optimization, supply chain design

Download pdf version of the articleThis paper compares the use of a spreadsheet vs. ExtendSim to create Monte Carlo simulations to manage inventory and design a supply chain. Models created were optimized to find the minimal inventory cost.


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Networks

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Tiffany Jill Harper
A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of
Master of Science in Engineering, Wright State University, 2008

Read articleThe United States Air Force, in accordance with the Department of Defense's mission to modernize its processes, systems, and information flows, began an effort to replace legacy systems with two Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems (USDoD, 2007a). Nova Technology Solutions (NovaTech), an Information Technology (IT) and Analytics firm, recognized the Air Force's need for a repeatable, reliable, tool to aid decisionmaking during the planning, installation, and sustainment of these ERP systems, thus proposing the use of modeling and simulation. ExtendSim was used to create a simple simulation model to analyze the impact of ERP increased workload on network performance, specifically at the Air Force Service Delivery Points (SDPs).

Results from the NovaTech model show that a 15% increase in current workload, or current network traffic, will cause a 250% increase in end-user response time (Fitzgerald & Harper, 2008), while the model used for Ms. Harper's thesis showed a 98%, 209%, and 352% increase in response time when the current workload is increased by 10%, 20%, and 30%, respectively. In an experiment investigating the impact of capacity expansion in the model with the double resource SDP, it was determined that for a 30% increased workload a 42.5% increase in SDP bandwidth capacity at the base hosting the application server resulted in a 75% decrease in average end-user response time during the peak traffic hour.

Tiffany Jill Harper
A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of
Master of Science in Engineering, Wright State University, 2008

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Optimization

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Vicente González, L.F. Alarcón, and K. Molenaar
Automation in Construction
July 18, 2008
keywords: buffering, evolutionary strategies, lean production, multiple objective analysis, simulation–optimization models, work-in-process

.Variability in production is one of the largest factors that negatively impacts construction project performance. A common construction practice to protect production systems from variability is the use of buffers (Bf). Construction practitioners and researchers have proposed buffering approaches for different production situations, but these approaches have faced practical limitations in their application.

In Multiobjective Design of Work-In-Process Buffer for Scheduling Repetitive Building Projects, a multiobjective analytic model (MAM) is proposed to develop a graphical solution for the design of Work-In-Process (WIP) Bf in order to overcome these practical limitations to Bf application, being demonstrated through the scheduling of repetitive building projects. Multiobjective analytic modeling is based on Simulation–Optimization (SO) modeling and Pareto Fronts concepts. Simulation–Optimization framework uses Evolutionary Strategies (ES) as the optimization search approach, which allows for the design of optimum WIP Bf sizes by optimizing different project objectives (e.g., project cost, time and productivity). The framework is tested and validated on two repetitive building projects. The SO framework is then generalized through Pareto Front concepts, allowing for the development of the MAM as nomographs for practical use. The application advantages of the MAM are shown through a project scheduling example. Results demonstrate project performance improvements and a more efficient and practical design of WIP Bf. Additionally, production strategies based on WIP Bf and lean production principles in construction are discussed.

Note: This paper was made possible with the help of an ExtendSim Research Grant for the final project of Vicente González in obtaining his PhD in Construction Management from Pontificia Universidad de Católica de Chile.

. Download final report (664 KB): "Work-In-Process Buffer Design Methodology for Scheduling Repetitive Building Projects" by Vicente González and Luis F. Alarcón
. Download Extend OR 6 model files (5.7 MB). You may view these models in ExtendSim or download the ExtendSim Demo.
.
Simulation Magazine
December 1999

Read articleOptimization of Simulated System Effectiveness Using Evolutionary Algorithms is a brief discussion of the use of evolutionary algorithms in system optimization.

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Packaging Lines

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Ricardo Rodríguez & Rosana Marino,
S&T - Servicio y Tecnología S.A.

2001

Read articlePilot experience in the adoption of performance simulation approach to design, redesign, and acquisition of bottling lines. Discusses the management of huge bottling resources of a company: more than 36 lines in 12 factories, in 6 countries, with an aggregated investment value of $ 200 million, occupying more than a thousand people and producing 250 million cases a year of 300 different SKUs.

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Passenger Flow

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Mihails Savrasovs, Alexander Medvedev, Elena Sincova
Transport and Telecommunication Institut, Riga, Latvia
presented at the 23rd EUROPEAN Conference on Modelling and Simulation in Madrid, Spain, June 2009
Baggage handling system simulation, passenger flow forecast, development scenario estimation

Download pdf version of the article.This paper describes the use of simulation as a tool to analyze the baggage handling system at the airport of Riga, Latvia. The ExtendSim model created for this study examines the effect of increasing passenger flow on the future staffing and equipment needs of the existing baggage handling system.

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Queueing Systems

. A Diffusion Approximation for a GI/GI/1 Queue with Balking or Reneging

Amy R. Ward (School of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology) and Peter W. Glynn( Department of Management Science & Engineering, Stanford University)
Queueing Systems: Theory and Applications archive
August 2005
keywords: GI/GI/1-GI queue, Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, balking, deadlines, impatience, reflected diffusion, regulated diffusion, reneging

Read articleConsider a single-server queue with a renewal arrival process and generally distributed processing times in which each customer independently reneges if service has not begun within a generally distributed amount of time. A Diffusion Approximation for a GI/GI/1 Queue with Balking or Reneging establishs that both the workload and queue-length processes in this system can be approximated by a regulated Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (ROU) process when the arrival rate is close to the processing rate and reneging times are large. This paper further shows that a ROU process also approximates the queue-length process, under the same parameter assumptions, in a balking model. This balking model assumes the queue-length is observable to arriving customers, and that each customer balks if his or her conditional expected waiting time is too large.

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Reliability

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Ioana Rus, Fraunhofer Center for Experimental Software Engineering and James Collofello, Arizona State University
CrossTalk - The Journal of Defense Software Engineering

Read article The authors created a prototype simulation model of the dynamics of defect evolution (introduction, detection, and removal) and of the process factors that influence it throughout the entire development lifecycle of a software product. The simulation model presented is a tool that supports reliability prediction as well as cost and schedule estimation. It helps the user to forecast the impact of different reliability practices not only on software reliability (effectiveness), but also on cost and development time (efficiency). This article describes the model created and presents a hypothetical example illustrating how an organization could use the simulation tool to make decisions regarding reliability strategies.

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Resource Planning

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Reid Kress, Richard Rinehart of Y-12 National Security Complex andSimulation Dynamics, Inc.
Presented at Winter Simulation Conference 2004

Download PowerPoint presentationPowerPoint presentation of a decision support tool used for long-term, rough-cut resource and capacity planning. IRPM evaluates the impact of rapidly changing schedules, variable budgets, and changing resource bases (i.e., personnel, equipment, and facilities and their effects on schedule performance, projected cost, and resource utilization).

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RFID Technology

. Evaluating the Impact of Introducing RFID Technology in Manufacturing Systems Using Simulation
 
Aly Mohamed Owida, Khaled S. El-Kilany, and Aziz E. El-Sayed from the Department of Industrial and Management Engineering, College of Engineering and Technology, Arab Academy for Science, Technology, and Maritime Transport (AASTMT), Alexandria, Egypt
Presented at the 41st International Conference on Computers and Industrial Engineering 2011

This research was subsidized by an ExtendSim Research Grant

Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has significant impact on product tracking and identification in manufacturing systems. Most of the business cases that implement the RFID technology in their operations have achieved various benefits. RFID technology can reduce the operating errors that affect the efficiency of the operations which results in improving different performance measures such as cycle time, throughput, work-in-process, resources utilization, and average waiting time in queues. In addition, several benefits such as improved items monitoring, lower lead times, and better inventory control can be achieved by introducing RFID technology. Recent developments in RFID technology and other supporting technologies have created opportunities for real-time traceability and better visibility in
shop floor operations.

.This paper investigates the effectiveness of introducing RFID technology in tracking and identification processes for products flow in a job shop manufacturing facility. A leading furniture manufacturer in Egypt has been selected as a case study. The manufacturer produces a large number of customized furniture products. Errors in tracking and identification usually occur due to the large number of products present on the shop floor. Introduction of radio frequency identification technology at different stages of manufacturing is proposed to overcome these errors. Different simulation models have been developed for the post-assembly processes in the facility. These models have been developed with an intent to capture all the features that characterize a real furniture manufacturing facility. Simulation is used to assess the impact of introducing the RFID technology on a number of performance measures. Analysis and comparison of simulation results for the base and proposed models show that RFID implementation can improve the overall performance of the facility.

Download paper go to...
Download model files
(created in ExtendSim 7 so can be viewed in either 7 or 8)
Download ExtendSim model

 

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Risk Management

.
Doug Samuelson
OR/MS Today

December 2010
general simulation, risk management

OR/MS Today - December 2010OR/MS Today is a publication provided as a benefit to INFORMS members. Along with a few other simulation tools, the article "When Close is Better Than Optimal" featured in the December 2010 issue of OR/MS Today mentions ExtendSim as a valuable tool simulation tool.

An excerpt from the article:

"This brings us to ExtendSim, formerly called just Extend, which this reporter regards as the closest to the overal capability at this time. ExtendSim has the ease of learning and use and the robust user base to stay in this market, good animation features, and full integration with data input, via spreadsheets or from some database packages, and fitting probability distribution to these inpt data asets. The latest version also includes a Scenario Manager that tracks changes in inputs and associated output files. It creates a record of runs and results and thereby supports a general experimental management activity. Read articleThis also facilitates communication with more advanced, full-featured experimental design routines...."

Click here to become an INFORMS member and read the remainder of the article.

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Routing / Scheduling

. Discrete Event Simulation of Emergency Department Activity: A Platform for System-level Operations Research
Lloyd G. Connelly, PhD and Aaron E. Bair, MD
Journal of Academic Emergency Medicine
November 2004

Read articleExplores the potential of discrete event simulation (DES) methods to advance system-level investigation of emergency department (ED) operations. To this end, the authors describe the development and operation of Emergency Department SIMulation (EDSIM), a new platform for computer simulation of ED activity at a Level 1 trauma center. The authors also demonstrate one potential application of EDSIM by using simulated ED activity to compare two patient triage methods.

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Ioana Rus, Fraunhofer Center for Experimental Software Engineering and James Collofello, Arizona State University
CrossTalk - The Journal of Defense Software Engineering

Read article The authors created a prototype simulation model of the dynamics of defect evolution (introduction, detection, and removal) and of the process factors that influence it throughout the entire development lifecycle of a software product. The simulation model presented is a tool that supports reliability prediction as well as cost and schedule estimation. It helps the user to forecast the impact of different reliability practices not only on software reliability (effectiveness), but also on cost and development time (efficiency). This article describes the model created and presents a hypothetical example illustrating how an organization could use the simulation tool to make decisions regarding reliability strategies.

.
Dr. Donald W. Collins
ASEE ’2000 Conference
June 2000

Read articleThis paper illustrates the use of discrete event stochastic simulation modeling to compare two scheduling (dispatching) policies, first-in-first-out (FIFO), and Minimum Inventory Variability Policies (MIVP), for machines in a factory. The model developed observes and compares machine utilization, records queue statistics, plots mean cycle time and mean WIP, calculates production throughput, can push bottleneck capacity to it’s limit, test setup rules and machine controllers, try preventive maintenance schedules, and determine personnel (operator) requirements.

. Unemployment Insurance Benefit Processing Simulation
John Jones, Project Leader, W. Scott Nainis, Chief Technologist, Henry James, Executive Director
UI Information Technology Support Center
January 2000

Download pdf version of the articleThis report documents a computer-based simulation of Unemployment Insurance(UI) benefit processing developed by the Unemployment Insurance (UI) Information Technology Support Center (ITSC) under its Benefit System Modernization project. The Extend model created for this project can be used to investigate and evaluate various steps in processing UI initial claims and customized for each state's individual requirements. This report describes the basic structure of the computer-based simulation, its operation, including methods to vary the input parameters, methods to view the results of simulation, and instructions on obtaining a free copy of the benefit processing model.

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Scenario Management

New
Dave Krahl
Presented at the Winter Simulation Conference - December 2011
scenario management

Download pdf version of the article Simulation models are typically built to obtain an understanding of the system dynamics and compare alternatives. ExtendSim’s Scenario Manager provides an easy interface to evaluate different model configurations and explore the effects of model parameters. Scenario management provides for a systematic, controlled approach to the investigation of a system or process. Among other things, it can be used for problem solving ("what are the main factors contributing to the problem"), parameter design ("how well does the system/process perform given specified factors"), and robustness studies (what is the best configuration of factor values to maximize/minimize variations in response".) Thus it has a very broad application across all disciplines.

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Security Systems

.
Front Cover Art
August 2000

Read articleSimulation Magazine - August 2000Each month, Simulation magazine features a different simulation application on its cover. In August 2000, a model of an airport security checkpoint was chosen. This model utilized Extend bundled with Proof Animation (Extend Suite) to simulate and animate proposed changes to an existing security system. For more details on the model, click here or on the cover.

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Selecting Simulation Software

.

Jerry Banks and Randall R. Gibson
Analytics Magazine, Spring 2009
definition, general simulation article, terms

Download articleLetter by letter, the authors summarize 26 of what they consider to be important components for applying knowledge and judgment to simulation problems. They do not claim that these are “the” 26 components. Other simulation analysts could have another set, or they could have multiple components for one letter of the alphabet.

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David M. Raffo, PhD and Wayne Wakeland, PhD, Carnegie Mellon University
Software Engineering Institute

January 2008

Read articleThis report shows how process simulation modeling (PSIM) can help companies improve processes and achieve higher levels of process maturity and capability as called for by the Capability Maturity Model® Integration (CMMI®)1 [SEI 2006]. CMMI was developed by a team consisting of members
from industry, government, and the Software Engineering Institute (SEI).This report is aimed at practitioners, especially software development project managers, and researchers studying software development processes. The report describes a variety of PSIM applications and discusses how PSIM has helped organizations to improve their implementations of CMMI areas toward higher levels of process capability, maturity and performance.

New
Robin Clark (The QMT Group) and David Krahl (Imagine That Inc.)
Presented at the Winter Simulation Conference - December 2011
model building, selecting simulation software

Download pdf version of the article Success in your first simulation model is crucial for the overall prospects of a new simulation program. This paper outlines the building of your first simulation model with emphasis on the overall process and what it takes to be a successful model builder.

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Semiconductor Manufacturing

Video
Gray McQuarrie
The PCB Magazine - August 2011
cost analysis, cycle time, design of experiments, FAB operations, manufacturing

Download pdf version of the articleWalmartCompetition from China can be daunting. How can high-tech manufacturers in the US compete with the lower product cost from manufacturers in China?

In this article, Mr. McQuarrie uses ExtendSim to model a high-density complex fab plant to determine how much money the plant can make. NewFrom there, results are analyzed to better understand operations and work collaboratively tomastermind how to produce with higher yields and run product.

The video further describes the modeling process in ExtendSim.

.
Gray McQuarrie
The PCB Magazine - August 2012
cost analysis, fabricators, job shop, scrap reduction, semiconductor manufacturing,

Download pdf version of the articlePublic TrainingIn the August issue of The PCB Magazine, Gray MacQuarrie, president of Grayrock & Associates, uses ExtendSim to illustrate that "as you improve your scrap rate you can reduce the delivery time on quick-turn lots, which may allow you to earn a higher performance premium." Learn more.

.
Dr. Donald W. Collins, Vijay Lakshman, and Luc D’Arcy Collins
ISSM Conference
October 2001

Read articleDynamic Simulator for WIP Analysis in Semiconductor Manufacturing describes the implementation of a FAB Simulator and Capacity Planner in a semiconductor FAB in Arizona that assists the operational planner with the planning of the daily production mix. This paper was presented to top semiconductor firms from all over the world at the International Symposium Semiconductor Manufacturing conference.

.
Dr. Donald W. Collins
Solid State Technology

January 1999

Read articleSimulation of a wafer fabrication line to assist in the meeting of delivery schedules, reducing product cycle times, increasing product yield and throughput, optimizing equipment utilization, and increasing confidence for on-time delivery and profits.

.
Dr. Donald W. Collins
ASEE ’2000 Conference
June 2000

Read articleThis paper illustrates the use of discrete event stochastic simulation modeling to compare two scheduling (dispatching) policies, first-in-first-out (FIFO), and Minimum Inventory Variability Policies (MIVP), for machines in a factory. The model developed observes and compares machine utilization, records queue statistics, plots mean cycle time and mean WIP, calculates production throughput, can push bottleneck capacity to it’s limit, test setup rules and machine controllers, try preventive maintenance schedules, and determine personnel (operator) requirements.

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IIE Solutions
December 1999

Read articleSimulation study conducted by a Fortune 100 semiconductor manufacturer to modify their operations.

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Dr. Donald W. Collins, Luc D’Arcy Collins, and Bob Franklin
April 2002

Download pdf version of the articleThis paper describes the logic and assumptions used in building a simulation model of an Automated Material Handling System (AMHS) for an eight inch Wafer FAB. The model includes the ability to make changes to the area stocker layout, number of area stockers, number of loops, number of cars, and/or the number of Lot moves. This model is used to determine if the Area Stockers can handle the quantities of Lots per hour required by From-To-Table "customer" requirements.

. Wafer Lot Release Policies Based on the Continuous and Periodic Review of WIP Levels
Khaled S. El-Kilany, Department of Industrial and Management Engineering, College of Engineering and Technology, Arab Academy for Science, Technology, and Maritime Transport (AASTMT), Alexandria, Egypt
Presented at the Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management (IEEM), 2011 IEEE International Conference.

This research was subsidized by an ExtendSim Adopter University

IEEE"Wafer lot release policies based on the continuous and periodic review of WIP levels" evaluates the impact of different lot release policies on the performance of semiconductor wafer fabrication facilities (wafer fabs). Lot release policies presented in this work are based on continuous review and periodic review inventory control policies. Proposed policies can be considered as modifications to the well known CONstant Work-In-Process (CONWIP) method. Simulation of the Intel Mini-Fab model is used to compare the performance of the fab using the CONWIP method to using these proposed policies. Additionally, two different dispatching rules are used at the bottleneck station to evaluate its impact on the fab performance when combined with the release policies. Performance is measured using an overall efficiency measure to represent the changes that occur in both cycle time and throughput rate. The work shows that periodic WIP review can improve the performance of the fab; while, continuous WIP review will have the same effect of the CONWIP method.

Access paper go to...

 

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Service Systems

. Managing Service Systems with an Offine Waiting Option and Customer Abandonment

Vasiliki Kostami, Sriram Dasu, and Amy R. Ward
Manufacturing & Service Operations Management
December 19, 2008
keywords: service operations, customer abandonment, customer impatience, reneging, offline waiting, choice models, heavy traffic

Read articleMany service providers offer customers the choice of either waiting in a line, or going offine and returning at a dynamically determined future time. The best known example is the FASTPASS® system at Disneyland. To operate such a system, the service provider must first make an upfront decision on how to allocate service capacity between the two lines. Then, during system operation, he must dynamically provide estimates of the waiting times at both lines to each arriving customer. The estimation of offine waiting times is complicated by the fact that some offine customers do not return for service at their appointed time.

.The paper Managing Service Systems with an Offine Waiting Option and Customer Abandonment shows that when demand is large and service is fast, for any fixed capacity allocation decision, the two-dimensional process tracking the number of customers waiting inline and offine collapses to one dimension, and characterize the one-dimensional limit process as a reflected diffusion with linear drift.

. Download article

The analytic tractability of this one-dimensional limit process allows to solve for the capacity allocation that minimizes average cost, when there are costs associated with customer abandonments and queueing. It is further shown that in this limit regime, a simple scheme based on Little's law to dynamically estimate inline and
offline wait times is effective.

Note: This paper was made possible with the help of an ExtendSim Research Grant for the final project of Vasiliki Kostami in obtaining his PhD in Operations Management from the University of Southern California.

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Supply Chain

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IIE Solutions
December 1996

Download pdf version of the articleProject undertaken by the Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) to reengineer its supply chain to reduce expenses, decrease need-fulfillment time, and improve the storage and dissemination of information.

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Gray McQuarrie
The PCB Magazine - September 2012
metal finishing, scrap reduction, semiconductor manufacturing, supply chain

Download pdf version of the articleLittle Things Have the Power to Break Big DAMsDoes it really make sense to roll
the dice with an important customer order, just because of the inherent unreliability of your metal finishing operation? If so, it may be time for you to change the game—today.

In the October 2012 issue of The PCB Magazine, Gray MacQuarrie, president of Grayrock & Associates, introduces an ExtendSim model that could be used to illustrate cost to a business when a worst-case scenario happens and how you could best handle the situation with your customer. Learn more.

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Gray McQuarrie
The PCB Magazine - October 2012
metal finishing, scrap reduction, semiconductor manufacturing, supply chain

Download pdf version of the articleNo DAM Extras...Like, Ever!How we manage our scrap events
determines whether our business thrives or dies. Consider a policy to start absolute-lot quantities,
which means, no extras, ever.

In the October 2012 issue of The PCB Magazine, Gray MacQuarrie, president of Grayrock & Associates, uses ExtendSim to illustrate the option of restarting jobs
in which you start absolute-lot quantities—no extras—even though this requires disciplined execution and a tightly timed and reliable production
process. This option could make your operation extremely profitable—if you can do it. Learn more.

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Ilmars Dukulis, Gints Birzietis, Daina Kanaska
Latvia University of Agriculture

7th International Scientific Conference on Engineering for Rural Development
biofuel, logistics, supply chain, systems engineering

Download pdf version of the articleLatvia UniversityBiofuels are transport fuels made from organic material. The most common biofuels today are biodiesel (made from vegetable oils) and bioethanol (made from sugar and starch crops). Research is under way to commercialize “second-generation” production techniques that can make biofuels from woody material, grasses, and some additional types of waste. Biofuels have a unique role to play in European energy policy. They are today the only direct substitute for oil in transport that is available on a significant scale.

This paper that was originally presented at the 7th International Scientific Conference on Engineering for Rural Development in May of 2008 in Jelgava, Latvia. It provides a short overview of the strategies and action plans in production and use of biofuels in Europe and Latvia. Then, existing solutions in the
improvement of biofuel logistic systems are analyzed as well as ExtendSim as a tool for the modeling of biofuel supply chains.

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Technology Insertion

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IIE Solutions
December 1999

Read articleSimulation study conducted by a Fortune 100 semiconductor manufacturer to modify their operations.

. Simulation's Strength
Mark Toner
TechNews
May/June 2002

Read articleIn Simulation's Strength, Extend helped a print publisher save hundreds of thousands of dollars by pointing out the optimal amount of equipment needed for a large-scale publishing operation.

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Transportation

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Mihails Savrasovs
Transport and Telecommunication Institute, Riga, Latvia
presented at the 2011 European Conference on Modelling and Simulation, Kraków, Poland
LOS estimation, mesoscopic simulation, urban transport corridor

Urban Transport modelThis paper uses a discrete rate approach to modeling in ExtendSim simulation software for urban transport corridor simulation. Such mesoscopic traffic flow models should be understood as models where traffic flow is described in a high level of detail, but at the same time flow behaviour is presented at a low level of description.

Since the discrete rate approach is typically not used in the transport area, this paper presents the main techniques of model implementation using a discrete rate approach and the application of this approach for urban transport corridor simulation. The author concludes that development time of the
mesoscopic model is approximately 5 times less than a
development of the same microscopic model.

Learn more about the urban transport project here. Download pdf

 

 

Utilities

. The Asset Life Cycle Analysis™ (ALCA™): Forecasting an Asset Strategy
Davies Consulting Inc.
August 2007

ALCA modelDownload pdf fileIn October 2005, a North American utility sponsored a meeting of utilities to discuss the aging assets problem. Davies Consulting, Inc. (DCI) was eventually asked, on behalf of a consortium of 21 utilities, to research current methods for life cycle analysis and provide a defensible method to deal with aging asset life cycles. DCI ultimately developed a methodology to analyze historical asset failure data, created a library of predictive asset failure frequency curves, and built a web-based and analytically rigorous simulation model. Through this model, DCI has empowered utility decision makers to forecast the near and long-term financial and system performance outcomes of strategic asset replacement and maintenance decisions.

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Waste Management

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D.S.F. Neves, A.P.D. Gomes, L.A.C. Tarelho, and M.A.A. Matos
Department of Environment and Planning, University of Aveiro, Portugal
Presented at the Eleventh International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium
October 2007

Download article

Composting ModelThe composting process applied to the treatment of biodegradable waste materials is one of the most adequate ways to enhance the environmental performance of the municipal solid waste (MSW) management systems. In the European context where environmental policies tend to encourage solid waste minimization and recycling, home composting is an effective method to decrease the quantity of MSW to be disposed. Home composting can be used for the conversion of the organic fraction of household wastes to a stable humus-like material (the compost).

This paper presents a dynamic model that simulates the biological composting process, applied to the organic fraction of the municipal solid waste.

Download article Results from the sCOMPOS model.
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Wastewater Treatment

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Dennis S. Painter & Donald Becker, Tennessee Valley Authority; Avinash S. Patwardhan, Thomas Jobes, & Patrick Graham, CH2M HILL

Download pdf version of the articleTVAThis paper describes methodologies used to perform stormwater evaluations at a Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) facility, including hydrologic and water quality modeling. The hydrologic and water quality modeling was accomplished with the use of the LIFE™ model, developed in Extend by CH2M HILL to simulate Low Impact Development (LID). TVA is in the process of installing several demonstration projects using LID designs.

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Web-based Models

. The Asset Life Cycle Analysis™ (ALCA™):
Forecasting an Asset Strategy
Davies Consulting Inc.
August 2007

ALCA modelDownload pdf fileIn October 2005, a North American utility sponsored a meeting of utilities to discuss the aging assets problem. Davies Consulting, Inc. (DCI) was eventually asked, on behalf of a consortium of 21 utilities, to research current methods for life cycle analysis and provide a defensible method to deal with aging asset life cycles. DCI ultimately developed a methodology to analyze historical asset failure data, created a library of predictive asset failure frequency curves, and built a web-based and analytically rigorous simulation model. Through this model, DCI has empowered utility decision makers to forecast the near and long-term financial and system performance outcomes of strategic asset replacement and maintenance decisions.

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Historical Documents on ExtendSim
Archive of Imagine That Inc. papers presented at past Winter Simulation Conferences. Note: Complete papers of presentations from more current conferencs can now be accessed from the INFORMS site at http://informs-sim.org/.

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David Krahl
Winter Simulation Conference Proceedings
December 2003

Download pdf version of the articleThe Extend simulation environment provides the tools for all levels of modelers to efficiently create accurate, credible, and usable models. Extend’s design facilitates every phase of the simulation project, from creating, validating, and verifying the model, to the construction of a user interface which allows others to analyze the system. Simulation tool developers can use Extend’s built-in, compiled language, ModL, to create reusable modeling components. All of this is done within a single, self-contained software program that does not require external interfaces, compilers, or code generators.

. 2002 - The Extend Simulation Environment
David Krahl
Winter Simulation Conference Proceedings
December 2002

Download pdf version of the articleOverview of Extend 6 highlighting its functionality and offering a few examples of its use.

. 2001 - The Extend Simulation Environment
David Krahl
Winter Simulation Conference Proceedings
December 2001

Download pdf version of the articleOverview of Extend 5 highlighting some of its industry firsts, its functionality, and offering a few examples of its use.

. 2000 - The Extend Simulation Environment
David Krahl
Winter Simulation Conference Proceedings
December 2000

Download pdf version of the articleOverview of Extend 4 highlighting its advanced features and offering a few examples of its use.

. 1999 - Modeling with Extend
David Krahl
Winter Simulation Conference 1999
December 1999

Download pdf version of the articleThis document presents an overview of the Extend 4 modeling environment. It was presented at the Winter Simulation Conference in 1999.

. 1998 - Hierarchical Modular Modeling in Discrete Simulation
M. Pidd and R. Bayer Castro
Dept. of Management Science, Lancaster University, UK
Winter Simulation Conference 1998

Download pdf version of the articleDescribes hierarchy and its benefits in building large discrete event models.

. 1998 - Modeling with Extend
Jim Rivera
Winter Simulation Conference 1998
December 1998

Download pdf version of the articleThis document presents an overview of the Extend 4 modeling environment. It was presented at the Winter Simulation Conference in 1998.

. 1997 - Modeling with Extend
Jim Rivera
Winter Simulation Conference 1997
December 1997

Download pdf version of the articleThis document presents an overview of the Extend 3 modeling environment. It was presented at the Winter Simulation Conference in 1997.

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